Standard texts of the convention with communocation link.






Back to Main Page.


Please do not use Google Chrome. Safari often stops jumping of hyperlinks. Please install Adobe Reader for your smartphone.


1 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 15MB 7200pages


2 Environmental Agreements

2.1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

2.2 Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

2.5 The Convention on Biological Diversity

2.6 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

2.9 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat


3 Patent Convention

3.1 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

3.2 International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

3.5 Patent Cooperation Treaty

3.6 Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure

3.80 Convention on the Grant of European Patents (European Patent Convention)


3.81 Implementing Regulations to the Convention on the Grant of European Patents


3.9 ANNEX 1C  Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights


4 Copyright treaties

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

5 Trade Convention

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods


Agreement on Agriculture




Agreement on Safeguards


Agreement on Preshipment Inspection




6 Convention on Human Rights

Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights




Both Paris Convention pertaining to industrial property rights and Berne Convention pertaining to copyrights do not have a heading in each text.  These Conventions each were enacted in 19th century (Creation convention in the case of Berne Convention), and their official texts were written in French.

Each text does not have any heading probably because these Conventions were affected by Napoleonic Code at that times, and their interpretations were prohibited. The Civil Code of Japan also does not have any headings.

However, recent conventions or treaties are often provided with headings not only in each Article but also in each Clause. UVOP also has headings. The regulations under PCT are also provided with headings. As headings are convenient for readers, Paris Convention pertaining to industrial property rights, which is the convention in the old times, has begun to be provided with a heading in each Clause.

It is true that WIPO has created headings for this Paris Convention and published them on WWW.  At this time, each heading is attached preceding the start of the provision of each Article. There may be an idea in the world of laws that people are not willing to accept items other than the provisions of laws to enter into the wording as the text.

In any way these headings help us to easily look at the provisions. Consequently, for Paris Convention, there arises a question that a heading in front of each Clause would make readers even more easier to look at ? And, at that time also, unlike the civil code, I began to consider that it would be reasonable to attach a heading immediately after the start of the number of the text.

Each text of the current civil laws is provided with a heading assigned by each publishing company, but in the current method, there is a heading on a line preceding the number of the text at the time of digital publishing.

In order to make an instant confirmation, it is inconvenient for a reader to search for the second line by his or her eye line. It is my suggestion that it would be better to review again headings in Paris Convention, or Berne Convention.

In that case, I would want Patent Office or Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan to create a heading for each item, which is more evolutionary than the style of United Nations.

I would like to expect International Treaties or Conventions with convenient headings for readers to appear in near future, which will back up salaried employees who have to beat their international competitions.




After the number search, please press the right side blue PDF icon.